- CFD Software & Engineering Since 1985 Technalysis email search www.technalysis.com
Passage DEM Software

Presented at:
IS&T's NIP17: 2001 International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies

Modeling Electrophotographic Developer Flow with a Viscous Fluid Flow Model

Yasuo Takuma1, Teruaki Mitsuya1, Kaoru Kataoka2, Heigo Ueki2
Tomio Sugaya2, Vladimir Rubek3 and Akin Ecer4
R&D Lab. and 2Printing Systems Group, Hitachi Koki Co., Ltd.
Hitachinaka, Ibaraki, Japan
3Consultant and 4Purdue University
Indianapolis, Indiana, USA


In laser printers, the developing station forms toner images on the photoconductor drum surface. The primary concern for formation of stable toner images is obtaining smooth developer flow. Then, observation of the developer flow at a free surface in an actual developing station has been done. For better flow optimization, developer flow details such as local flow velocity vectors and streamlines, not only at the free surface but also in the developer flow, should be clarified. A simulation method for optimizing the flow was examined.

In the simulation method, a large calculation domain in the developing station is required. Therefore, viscous fluid analysis to minimize the calculation load is employed. Viscosity should be defined as fitting the developer particle flow. To do this, viscosity measurements were carried out. It was found that the developer flow should be non-Newtonian fluid, in which viscosity is proportional to the reciprocal of its shear rate. This means that shear stress in the developer flow should be constant.

This property was used to simulate the developer particle flow behavior successfully, even in three-dimensional models. Flow details, on both large and small scales in the developing station, could be observed.



Passage®/ DEM+FLOW Software

Example: Fluidized Bed Granulation of Tablets
Flow Model - Air Velocity
DEM Model Particles
Example: Mixing of Powders
DEM Model
FLOW Model
Example: Printing of Toners- Development Process (sample pictures)
Toner Voltage
Print pattern
Passge DEM Toner Voltage

Passage Discerete Element Modeling (DEM) Print Pattern


Passage Licensing Options:

Technalysis offers various licensing options and support to fit your needs and budget. Contact us to discuss your needs. E-mail or call 317-291-1985

Technalysis® Engineering and Passage® CFD Software since 1985
Copyright © 1985 - 2019 Technalysis, Inc. All Rights Reserved.